8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 – List & Guide

Although it might look complicated, percolator bongs are very simple and can be used by anyone who enjoys good bong. The percolator is an additional water chamber found in the bong’s tube. This allows water to flow through the bong. It cools the cannabis smoke before inhaling it. This allows for a smoother and easier toke.

Percolator bongs can be a great choice if you want to enjoy a smooth inhale and maximize your cannabis intake. Although the percolator will not make you smoke higher than normal, it will give you a more enjoyable smoking experience that will allow you to continue smoking for longer.

Percolator bongs or percs are water-distributed bongs that take your cannabis experience to the next level. This doesn’t mean that you should throw away your college-style bong. However, it could be a good idea to take advantage of some of the newer glass designs. What makes a percolator bong different from a regular one? It all comes down to personal preference, budget and previous bong experience.

There are clearly advantages to upgrading from the traditional design to a more advanced one. Percolator bongs reduce the risk of contamination, decrease coughing, enhance the flavor of dry flowers and dabs — what you would call a bong-smoker’s dream.

You might also wonder what the difference is between a bong and a waterpipe. It’s simple – they are basically the same thing. Although technically, “water pipes” can also include bubblers, the term is most commonly used to describe bongs.

What is a percolator bong or water pipe?

Percolator bongs or water pipes use the process of percolation to encourage slowing down and obtaining creamier, more delicious hits. This design allows smoke to flow through holes or slits, before reaching the mouthpiece. The percolator component, which essentially presses bubbles into a separate chamber, purifies and cools the vapor. It sounds complicated, however.

We had so many choices that we decided to rank the top percolator bongs of 2019. You do your research before you buy a bong. It is easy to overlook the percolators, which can lead to costly problems. Percolators cool your hits by using water to slow down the smoke’s journey to your lungs. This gives the smoke a longer cooling time. Percs can also be used to moisten and filter every hit. This will give you a better experience. Look no further if you are looking for a high-quality percolator bong. Below are the top percolator bongs on the market.

Best Percolator Bongs & Water Pipes 2023

Ice Bong – Honeycomb Disc and Tree Perc

Ice Bong - Honeycomb Disc and Tree Perc

Glass City’s affordable double-perc ice bong has a honeycomb disc and tree percolator onboard. This will deliver delicious,

super-smooth, filtered results you’ll love. This tall tube bong is made from thick, durable clear boroglass. The colorful accents and matching Glass City honeycomb decal underneath the comfortably rimmed mouthpiece make it look great.

The straight tube of the Ice Bong is fitted with ice notches. This allows you to add a few ice cubes to cool the smoke as it travels over the ice to its destination. The bong features a 14mm female joint and a reinforced downstem. It also comes with a 14mm male herb bowl, which can be removed to make it a funnel-style, with a handle.

This twin perc bong deserves a place in your glass collection. It’s also a great piece to pass on to friends. The stable circular foot ensures that it won’t tip over or wobble during use. You can choose from Black, Blue, or Green as accent colors.

Single or Double Showerhead Perc Classic Straight

Single or Double Showerhead Perc Classic Straight

For perfect hits, a straight tube with a showerhead perc. This straight, showerhead percolator waterpipe deserves a spot on your coffee table. This piece was created by UPC and includes one or two sets tree percs as well as a diffused bottomstem. The bong even has an ice pinch to ensure smooth hits. This scientific glass is so functional that you can get it at a bargain price!

Single Perc: 12″ tall

Double Perc: 14″ tall

The “Jellyfish” Inline Perc to Tree Perc Bong

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

This water pipe looks just like a boat with its inline perc and tree perc. It provides super-smooth water filtering. This sturdy pipe is made of high-quality boro glass and has a thick, round base to ensure it stays balanced.

This 11-inch pipe will not cause any splashback. It comes with a 14.5mm female joint, and a 14.5mm male herb slide.

This clear glass waterpipe is distinguished by matching colored glass accents on its straight tube, tree perc and base. This pipe is an excellent choice, whether you are looking to add color to your collection or just need a daily driver for your favorite flower strains.

This water pipe looks just like a boat with its inline perc and tree perc. It provides super-smooth water filtering. This sturdy pipe is made of high-quality boro glass and has a thick, round base to ensure it stays balanced.

This 11-inch pipe will not cause any splashback. It comes with a 14.5mm female joint, and a 14.5mm male herb slide.

This clear glass water pipe is distinguished by matching colored glass accents on its straight tube, tree perc and base. This pipe is an excellent choice, whether you are looking to add color to your collection or just need a daily driver for your favorite flower strains.

Double Inverted Showerhead Perc Beaker Bong

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

Do you want to increase your smoking pleasure? This beautiful and large Pulsar Borosilicate water pipe is a great gift. This amazing piece features dual percs. To deliver silky smooth rips, there’s a honeycomb and a showerhead perc.

The clear glass straight neck bong measures 21.5 inches high. It’s made from thick, durable borosilicate glasses. The box comes with an 18.8mm female joint, and a 18.8mm male herb slide with a handle.

A 3-pinch ice-catcher is built in to cool down your rips. To keep water out of the mouthpiece, the bong features a splash guard dome over the percs.

The water pipe’s great look is supported by a solid double-layered beaker base that will ensure it stays in place when placed on a flat surface.

This Pulsar dual-perc all-glass bong will be a standout. This bong is perfect for dry herb enjoyment. The Pulsar logo is engraved on the neck of this bong and serves as a reminder to you that it’s a high-quality piece built to last.

Sandblasted Matrix Perc Beaker Bong

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

Foyo’s Sandblasted Matrix Perc Beaker Bong is a fashionable piece made from thick, durable scientific glass. For added elegance, the bong measures 15.5 inches tall and is decorated with various sandblasted designs. The bong has a finished look thanks to the green accents on its matrix perc and flared mouthpiece.

The Sandblasted Matrix Perc has a matrix perc and a downstem perc. They work together to produce lots of milky bubbles. This bong has twin percs which ensure smooth, easy-to-inhale hits that are gentle on the throat and lungs. You can even add some icy coolness with the ice pinch in the straight tube.

The pipe is a great daily driver and has a sturdy, thick base that provides excellent stability. The pipe comes with a 14.5mm male herbal bowl and a handle to protect your hands from the heat.

Single or Double Showerhead Perc Beaker Bong

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

The LA Pipes Single or Two Showerhead Perc Beaker Bong 12″ or 14” features 4.5mm thick durable boro glass, an 18-to-14mm removable diffuser down stem with recessed18mm F ground joint, a single and double showerhead perc, for extreme diffusion, tall straight neck mouthpiece, and a large flask base. Glass funnel herb slide with handle and matching glass funnel slide also available. The neck is adorned with a permanent LA Pipes emblem and logo. 38mm thick heavy wall

Notice: A single perc measures 12 inches tall and a double perc measures 14 inches.

Envy Glass 17″ Straight Tube with Dual Colored Pop Rocks Perc

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

This Envy Glass straight tube measures 17 inches and features a unique pop rock perc. This bong is striking from afar because of the colored accents. But, closer inspection reveals the beautiful and vibrant textured glasswork in its bowl and perc coordination.

Although the perc crackles as smoke and water filter through it, the result is smooth as butter. This water pipe features a triple point ice catch and 18.8mm female joint. It also has an 18.8mm male slide/bowl.

Glass Water Pipe With Three Turbine Percolators

8 Best Percolator Bong in 2023 - List & Guide

The 14-inch Pulsar Glass Water Pipe delivers flavorful, ultra-smooth hits. The straight tube water pipe comes with three turbine-style percolators that provide optimal filtration. Splash guard provides greater comfort and stability, while the thick disc base adds more stability.

The water pipe is 14 inches high and has a durable, thick borosilicate glass structure. The pipe comes with a 18.8mm male herb slide.

Understanding Percolator Bongs

Percolator bongs have gained significant popularity among smoking enthusiasts for their ability to enhance the smoking experience. These specialized bongs feature a percolator, a component that plays a crucial role in filtering and cooling the smoke, resulting in smoother hits and cleaner taste. Let’s delve deeper into the world of percolator bongs to understand how they work and the benefits they offer.

At its core, a percolator is an additional water chamber or filtration system integrated into a bong. It serves as an intermediary between the bowl and the mouthpiece, allowing smoke to pass through multiple water-filled compartments before reaching the user’s lungs. This multi-chamber design maximizes filtration, diffusion, and cooling of the smoke.

When a user inhales through the mouthpiece, the smoke from the burning herb or concentrate travels down the downstem and enters the percolator chamber. The smoke then interacts with the water and undergoes a process known as percolation. The percolator, with its various diffusion features, breaks down the smoke into tiny bubbles, increasing the surface area exposed to the water.

As the smoke passes through these bubbles, harmful substances and impurities get trapped, while the water simultaneously cools the smoke, making it less harsh on the throat and lungs. This filtration process results in cleaner, smoother hits and can even enhance the flavors and aromas of the material being smoked.

Benefits of using percolator bongs

  1. Enhanced Filtration: Percolator bongs excel at filtering out impurities, toxins, and ash from the smoke, offering a cleaner and purer inhalation experience compared to traditional bongs or smoking methods. The multiple layers of water and diffusion create an intricate filtration system that effectively removes unwanted particles.
  2. Smoother Hits: The percolation process significantly cools down the smoke, reducing the harshness often associated with smoking. The water and diffusion elements help to break down the smoke into smaller, smoother bubbles, resulting in a gentler hit that is easier on the throat and lungs.
  3. Improved Flavor: The filtration process not only removes harmful substances but can also enhance the natural flavors and aromas of the material being smoked. By reducing the presence of ash and other unwanted elements, percolator bongs allow users to fully savor the nuances and characteristics of their chosen herb or concentrate.
  4. Increased Diffusion: Percolator bongs offer superior smoke diffusion, meaning the smoke is spread out across a larger area, allowing it to cool down further and become even smoother. This diffusion can create visually appealing displays as the smoke passes through the various percolator designs.

Types of Percolator Bongs

Percolator bongs come in a variety of designs, each featuring a unique type of percolator that influences the smoking experience. Understanding the different types can help smokers choose a percolator bong that suits their preferences and delivers the desired level of filtration and diffusion. Let’s explore some common types of percolator bongs:

Diffused Downstem Percolators

Diffused downstem percolators are among the most common types found in percolator bongs. They consist of a simple downstem that is equipped with slits or holes at the bottom. When smoke is pulled through the downstem, it gets diffused through these openings into the water, creating small bubbles for enhanced filtration and cooling. Diffused downstem percolators are known for their simplicity, effectiveness, and easy maintenance.


  • Provides good filtration and cooling
  • Easy to clean and maintain
  • Straightforward design with fewer components, making it more affordable


  • May not offer as much diffusion compared to more complex percolator types
  • Limited variety in terms of design and visual aesthetics

Tree Percolators

Tree percolators are named for their resemblance to a tree with multiple branches. They consist of a central tube with several arms or “branches” extending from it, each equipped with numerous slits or holes. The smoke travels through these arms, diffusing into the water and creating a plethora of bubbles for maximum filtration and cooling. Tree percolators are known for their excellent diffusion capabilities.


  • Offers exceptional diffusion and filtration
  • Produces a visually captivating display of bubbles
  • Enhances the smoothness and coolness of hits


  • Can be more challenging to clean due to the intricate design
  • The many slits or holes may require more effort to clear blockages

Honeycomb Percolators

Honeycomb percolators feature a flat disc or chamber with multiple small holes resembling a honeycomb pattern. As smoke is pulled through the percolator, it is diffused through these holes, creating a vast number of small bubbles that filter and cool the smoke. Honeycomb percolators are appreciated for their excellent diffusion capabilities and smooth hits.


  • Provides efficient diffusion and filtration
  • Generates a visually appealing honeycomb pattern of bubbles
  • Offers a balanced combination of smoothness and flavor enhancement


  • The small holes may require extra care during cleaning to prevent blockages
  • Depending on the design, may be more prone to breakage or damage

Showerhead Percolators

Showerhead percolators consist of a vertical tube with a disc-shaped head that features multiple slits or holes. As smoke passes through the showerhead percolator, it is diffused through these slits, resembling the flow of water from a showerhead. This diffusion creates a shower of bubbles, maximizing filtration and cooling. Showerhead percolators are valued for their impressive diffusion capabilities.


  • Offers excellent diffusion, resulting in smooth hits
  • Provides a visually captivating display of shower-like bubbles
  • Effective in filtering out impurities and cooling the smoke


  • May require more effort to clean due to the intricate design
  • The slits or holes can be prone to clogging and require regular maintenance

Glass percolator bongs and water pipes come in a wide variety. These are some of the most popular designs that you will find online at headshops, with some exceptions.

Disc: This is one of the most popular designs. Disc percs filter smoke using a circular, hole-studded disc. This category also includes honeycomb percs, which are known for their high diffusion rate from the many tiny holes. These types are closely related to the circ perc. It is a hockey pick-like with diffusion holes, but has slits.

Swiss: Swiss percs can make the bong’s base look distorted, but these “swiss-cheese holes” actually cool the vapor around the vertical discs. Donut percs also push smoke into an “o-shaped” hole to enhance the bong’s aesthetic appeal.

Turbine: Also known as cyclone percs or vortex percs this style creates an effervescent effect when the smoke is drawn up to your lips. Turbine percs can be stacked on top the honeycomb design.

Inline/Matrix Percs: An inline perc is a horizontal, slitted tube that extends from the base. Sometimes, it’s welded inside. With its submarine-like design, this style is not your regular bong design. Another wow-factor style is the matrix perc. It whips up a frenzy with bubbles and smoke over a circular matrix. You can create an amazing “dancing” effect with horizontal and vertical slits.

Choosing the Right Percolator Bong

Choosing the right percolator bong is an important decision that can greatly impact your smoking experience. With the variety of options available, it’s essential to consider certain factors to ensure you find a percolator bong that meets your specific needs and preferences. Here are some key considerations to keep in mind:

Factors to consider

  1. Size and Portability: Think about where and how you plan to use your percolator bong. If you prefer smoking on the go or want a more compact option, a smaller-sized bong would be more suitable. On the other hand, if you enjoy longer sessions at home, a larger bong with more percolation features may be ideal.
  2. Percolator Type and Design: Consider the type of percolator that appeals to you the most. Each type offers unique characteristics in terms of diffusion, filtration, and visual aesthetics. Assess the pros and cons of different percolator designs, such as diffused downstems, tree percolators, honeycomb percolators, and showerhead percolators, to determine which aligns with your desired smoking experience.
  3. Budget Considerations: Set a budget range for your percolator bong purchase. Prices can vary significantly depending on factors such as brand, craftsmanship, and complexity of the percolator design. Determine how much you are willing to spend and explore options within that range to find a percolator bong that strikes a balance between quality and affordability.
  4. Personal Preferences: Take into account your personal smoking preferences. Are you more focused on smoother hits, intense diffusion, or preserving the flavor of your material? Assess what matters most to you in terms of filtration, cooling, and overall experience to help narrow down your options.

Choosing the Right Percolator Bong

Once you’ve considered the above factors, it’s time to embark on the journey of finding the perfect percolator bong. Here are some tips to guide you through the selection process:

  1. Research and Read Reviews: Conduct thorough research on different brands, percolator types, and models available. Read reviews from other users to gain insights into their experiences and the overall quality of the bongs you are considering. This information can help you make an informed decision.
  2. Visit Local Smoke Shops or Online Retailers: Explore local smoke shops or browse reputable online retailers that offer a wide selection of percolator bongs. Visit physical stores if possible to get a hands-on experience and examine the craftsmanship and build quality of the bongs. If shopping online, ensure the retailer is reputable and provides detailed descriptions, images, and customer reviews.
  3. Consider Additional Features: Pay attention to any additional features or accessories that come with the percolator bong. Some bongs may include ice catches, ash catchers, or percolator combinations that can enhance your smoking experience further.
  4. Seek Recommendations: Reach out to friends or fellow smokers who have experience with percolator bongs. They can provide valuable insights and recommendations based on their own experiences and preferences.

Maintaining and Cleaning Percolator Bongs

Proper maintenance and regular cleaning are essential for maximizing the lifespan and performance of your percolator bong. Residue, buildup, and stale water can affect the taste and functionality of your bong. Follow these guidelines to ensure effective maintenance and cleaning

Regular cleaning is crucial to prevent the buildup of resin, ash, and other impurities that accumulate over time. Dirty water and residue can impact the flavor of your smoke and hinder the performance of the percolator. By keeping your percolator bong clean, you ensure a smoother, more enjoyable smoking experience.

Cleaning Methods and Tools

Gather Cleaning Supplies:

  • Isopropyl alcohol (preferably 90% concentration or higher)
  • Coarse salt or rice
  • Cleaning brushes or pipe cleaners
  • Rubber stoppers or plugs (to seal openings)
  • Plastic bags or containers for soaking

Disassemble the Bong: Carefully disassemble your percolator bong, separating the various components such as the bowl, downstem, and percolator. This allows for easier access and thorough cleaning.

Soak in Cleaning Solution: Fill a plastic bag or container with isopropyl alcohol and add coarse salt or rice as an abrasive agent. Place the detachable parts of the bong into the solution, ensuring they are fully submerged. Let them soak for at least 30 minutes or longer for stubborn residue.

Scrub and Rinse: After soaking, use cleaning brushes or pipe cleaners to scrub the inside and outside of each component, paying special attention to the percolator and any hard-to-reach areas. Rinse each part thoroughly with warm water to remove any remaining residue and cleaning solution.

Clean the Bong Base and Mouthpiece: For the bong base and mouthpiece, fill them with the cleaning solution and seal the openings with rubber stoppers or plugs. Shake the bong gently, allowing the solution to reach all areas. Rinse thoroughly afterward.

Dry and Reassemble: Place all cleaned components on a clean towel or drying rack to air dry completely. Ensure they are fully dry before reassembling the percolator bong to avoid any potential mold or mildew growth.

Tips for Maintaining a Percolator Bong

  1. Regular Water Changes: Change the water in your percolator bong after each smoking session. Fresh water ensures a clean and pleasant experience. Stale water can develop an unpleasant odor and affect the taste of your smoke.
  2. Prevent Residue Buildup: To minimize residue buildup, consider using an ash catcher attachment or screens to trap ash and debris before they enter the percolator. This helps keep the bong cleaner for longer periods between cleanings.
  3. Clean Your Bong Frequently: Regularly clean your percolator bong to prevent stubborn buildup and maintain optimal performance. Cleaning it at least once a week is recommended, but adjust the frequency based on your usage and the level of residue accumulation.

Tips for Using Percolator Bongs

Using a percolator bong can enhance your smoking experience, but it’s important to employ proper techniques to maximize the benefits of filtration, diffusion, and smooth hits. Consider the following tips when using your percolator bong:

Filling and Using the Percolator Bong Correctly

  1. Add Sufficient Water: Fill the bong with water to an appropriate level that covers the percolator and provides enough space for smoke to pass through without splashing into your mouth. Avoid overfilling, as this can cause water to enter your mouth or the percolator chamber.
  2. Pack the Bowl Properly: When packing the bowl with your preferred herb or concentrate, ensure an even and consistent distribution. Avoid overpacking, as it can restrict airflow and hinder the percolation process. Leave some room for airflow to allow for smooth hits.
  3. Control Inhalation Speed: Take slow, steady inhales to allow the smoke to pass through the percolator and diffuse properly. Avoid excessively forceful inhalation, as it may disrupt the percolation process or result in water reaching your mouth.

Adjusting Water Levels for Optimal Percolation

  1. Experiment with Water Levels: Explore different water levels to find the sweet spot that suits your preferences. Adjusting the water level can affect the percolation and diffusion, resulting in variations in smoothness and flavor. Start with enough water to cover the percolator and experiment from there.
  2. Observe Bubbles and Drag: Watch the bubbles as you inhale. If the bubbles rise slowly or seem to “chug,” it may indicate that the water level is too high or the percolator is not functioning optimally. Adjust the water level accordingly for a smoother drag.

Maximizing Smoke Filtration and Diffusion

  1. Inhale Slowly and Steadily: Take long, slow draws when inhaling to allow the smoke to pass through the percolator and diffuse properly. This ensures maximum filtration and cooling, resulting in smoother hits.
  2. Clean and Maintain Regularly: Regularly clean your percolator bong to maintain optimal filtration and diffusion. A clean percolator ensures that the tiny holes, slits, or diffusers are clear of residue, enabling them to function effectively.
  3. Consider Ice or Cold Water: For an even cooler smoking experience, try using ice cubes or filling the bong with cold water. This can further reduce the harshness of the smoke and provide an extra level of cooling.
  4. Experiment with Different Percolators: If your percolator bong has interchangeable percolators, try experimenting with different types to find the one that suits your preferences best. Each percolator design offers unique filtration and diffusion properties, influencing the overall smoking experience.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

While using a percolator bong can enhance your smoking experience, it’s important to be aware of common mistakes that can hinder optimal performance or result in less enjoyable sessions. By avoiding these pitfalls, you can make the most of your percolator bong. Here are some common mistakes to steer clear of:

Overpacking the Bowl

One common mistake is overpacking the bowl with too much herb or concentrate. Overpacking restricts airflow, making it difficult for smoke to pass through the percolator and resulting in subpar hits. Ensure you leave some room in the bowl for proper airflow, allowing the smoke to flow smoothly and maximize the benefits of percolation.

Neglecting to Change the Water Regularly

Failing to change the water in your percolator bong regularly can lead to stale water, residue buildup, and unpleasant odors. The accumulation of impurities can affect the taste and quality of your smoke. Make it a habit to change the water after each smoking session to maintain a fresh and enjoyable experience. Fresh water also contributes to better filtration and cooling.

Using Excessive Force When Inhaling

Inhaling with excessive force can disrupt the percolation process and potentially cause water to splash into your mouth. Take slow, steady draws instead of forceful inhalation. This allows the smoke to pass through the percolator, diffuse properly, and provide a smoother hit. By avoiding excessive force, you can ensure a more comfortable and enjoyable smoking experience.

Neglecting Proper Cleaning and Maintenance

Failure to clean and maintain your percolator bong regularly can impact its performance and longevity. Residue buildup, clogged percolator holes, and dirty water can affect filtration, diffusion, and the overall taste of your smoke. Make it a habit to clean your percolator bong at least once a week or as needed. Regular maintenance ensures optimal functionality and a consistently pleasant smoking experience.

Not Adjusting Water Levels Appropriately

Water levels play a crucial role in the percolation process. Failing to adjust water levels appropriately can hinder proper filtration and diffusion. Too much water can impede airflow and cause chugging, while too little water may result in inadequate percolation. Experiment with different water levels to find the right balance that suits your preferences and allows for optimal percolation.

Do percolator bongs get you higher?

You won’t get higher with the percolator. You may feel higher while using one because it’s easier to inhale cannabis smoke

How to clean a percolator bong

When using a bong, the most important thing is how to clean it. It is important to keep your bong clean in order to safeguard your health and the health of anyone who uses it.

Why is a bigger bong better?

The size of a bong can impact several aspects of the smoking experience, but it is not necessarily true that a bigger bong is better.

A larger bong can have a greater water capacity, which can provide more filtration and cooling of the smoke, resulting in a smoother hit. Additionally, a bigger bong can have more intricate percolators and diffusion systems, which can further cool and filter the smoke.

However, larger bongs can also be more cumbersome and difficult to handle, especially for those who are new to using them. They can also be more difficult to clean and store, and may take up more space.

Moreover, a larger bong may not necessarily provide a stronger hit, as the strength of the hit depends on a variety of factors such as the potency of the substance being smoked, the quantity being smoked, and the individual’s tolerance.

In conclusion, whether a bigger bong is better ultimately depends on the individual’s preferences and needs. For those who prioritize filtration and a smooth hit, a larger bong may be a good choice. However, for those who prioritize convenience, portability, and ease of use, a smaller bong may be a better option.

What shape of bong is best?

The shape of a bong that is best for you ultimately depends on personal preference and smoking habits. However, here are a few of the most popular bong shapes and their associated benefits:

  1. Straight tube bongs: These are classic and straightforward, easy to clean, and provide a smooth, direct hit.
  2. Beaker bongs: These have a wide base that allows for a larger amount of water, which helps to filter and cool the smoke. They are also more stable than straight tubes.
  3. Round-base bongs: Similar to beaker bongs, these have a rounded base but often a smaller water chamber, making them more portable.
  4. Percolator bongs: These bongs have additional filtering devices in the form of percolators, which break up the smoke into smaller bubbles for smoother hits.
  5. Multi-chamber bongs: These bongs have two or more chambers, which offer even more filtration and diffusion for a smooth hit.
By cannabunga

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